Computer Architecture & Computer Fundamentals.

when we write any type of program it pass through the nine steps . Output is display by the operating system. when we write any program microprocessor work on it & whatever the output is generated it is displayed by the operating system. Nine steps are as follows.

Components Of Toolchain
  • Editor:
  • Editor is a tool in which we can write a program.
  • Preprocessor:
  • Preprocessor process the line begins with the # . The main task of preprocessor is header file inclusion , macro expansion,removal of comments & extra spaces. It generates the intermediate code file i.e .i file.

1]Compiler:

Compiler generates the assembly file i.e .asm file. Assembler convert this assembly file to machine understandable language i.e .obj file. This obj file contains three fields

  • Text: It contains the compiled instructions of our program.
  • Data: Memory for global variable allocated in data section.
  • Symbol Table: It contains the information of symbol used in program.

2]Linker:

Obj file generated by the assembler has to be link with another obj this is done by linker. Linker generates the executable file i.e .exe file. This exe file contains four fields.

  • Primary Header: It is contains address of entry point function, type of executable, timestamp, magic number.
  • Text: It contains the compiled instructions of our program.
  • Data: Memory for global variable allocated in data section.
  • Symbol Table: It contains the information of symbol used in program.

3]Loader:

Loader can load the .exe file generated by linker on the RAM. When program is loaded on the RAM it becomes the process. It consist of three fields.

  • Text: It contains the compiled instructions of our program.
  • Data: Memory for global variable allocated in data section.
  • Stack: It contains the information of the function.

4] ECU:

Execution Control Unit of CPU consist of segment register. It fetches the address and store them in segment register.

  • CS (Code Segment): It contains the starting address of text section.
  • DS (Data Section): It contains the starting address of data section.
  • SS (Stack Segment):It contains the starting address of stack section.
  • ES (Extra Segment):It is extra segment .
  • FS:
  • GS:

5]Instruction Queue:

All this instructions are arranged in a queue & that queue is called as instruction queue.

6]Instruction Pointer:

Instruction pointer can fetch the instruction from instruction queue & pass it to the next block.

  • ALU: It is arithmetic logic unit.
  • CU: it is control unit . It contains the control signals.
  • Flags: It returns the status of program.

7]RCU:

It contains general purpose register. All the operations are performed in RCU & output are passed through internal data bus towards the front side bus. Operating system decide whether to display the output or not.

Thanks! I hope this article is helpful for you :)

Computer Science student